Lockdown intent: to start an application with arguments
What intent argument(s) an app takes and the behaviour in response to the intent are determined by the app, not by MDM software nor by Google. So, if the app of interest is from a 3rd party, you should find related documentation or contact technical support/developer of the app. If it is an in-house developed app, you (or your developer colleague) have full control on what argument(s) the app takes and how the intent is implemented.
For now I have a little different question - Is there any way to start application with arguments without intent action? With just normal "Launch:"?
I don't think so. In your device home screen, you probably just tap on an app icon for most, if not all, app launchers to launch an app. I don't think you have any option to pass argument to the app started.
Modern and high-quality enteprise-grade app should support the standard AppConfig framework for MDM/EMM software to configure the app in Android-Enterprise platform. Older apps that do not support AppConfig framework may still support Android intent(s) to have configuration parameter(s) passed.